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            英语语法18种名词做主语主谓一致原则

            学习啦  家锐   2019-08-16 17:58:44

              英语语法是英语知识中十分重要的环节,希望以下文章对您有所帮助!

              英语语法一

              专有名词是指某个人、某种物、某件事、某个地点所专属的名称,如具人、地、物、地点、机构、节日、月份、国家或地区等的名称。专有名词首字母大写,通常情况在句子中前面没有限定词。比如My name is James.这里James是我的名字,是一个专有名词。但也有例外,如the People's Republic of China (中国)前面就有定冠词the,专有名词一般都是单数形式。更多关于专有名词的解释详见专有名词解释。

              本文将主要介绍专有名词中的人名相关知识,如前面例句中James就是人名。先来看一段小学生学习的英文片断:

              Three days before her birthday party,Sally writes down the names of her friends.They are all coming to her party.

              Jill

              Kim

              David

              Lisa

              Tom

              Mat

              Wendy

              For a person's name,you use a special type of noun.It is called a proper noun.

              如果有一定英语基础这一段英文应该能看懂其意思,没有英文基础的朋友用翻译软件翻译一下。片段中的Sally,Jill,Kim,David,Lisa,Tom,Mat,Wendy都是英文名,在文中人名第一个字母要大写,指的是已知的特定某人,前面没有定冠词。

              但是在某些时候人名前会有不定冠词或定冠词,这时专有名词就变成了普通名词。

              1、人名是专有名词通常前面不用冠词。

              a.表示人名的专有名词,包括那些前面带有尊称或头衔的专用名词,前面一般不用冠词。如:

              John is from London. 约翰是伦敦人。

              Mr.Collins was excellent in his perfromance. 柯林斯先生的表演很精彩。

              Professor Stamp was born in 1898,and educated at King's College,London. 斯坦普教授生于1898年,在伦敦皇家学院受的教育。

              b.艺术家的名字前如用不用冠词,可以指其人的全部作品。如:

              Bach gives me a lot of pleasure. 巴赫(的音乐作品)给了我很大享受。

              He likes Keats.他喜欢济慈的诗歌。

              2、姓氏(姓名)前用不定冠词a/an的用法:

              a.加在姓氏前表示“某个叫...的人;某位姓...的人”(说话人只知道姓氏,不知道名字或者说话人内心有所指,但又不十分明确,或说话人有意隐瞒)。如:

              A Miss Johnson called you yesterday. 有一位约翰逊小姐昨天打电话给你。

              There wasn't a single Jones in the village. 村子里连一个叫琼斯的人也没有。

              A Tom Smith is waiting for you downstairs. 一个叫汤姆.史密斯的人正在楼下等你。

              b.借喻,表示“和...相似的人”。如:

              He is a Lei Feng of today.他是当代的雷锋。

              We need a Washington today.今天我们需要华盛顿那样的人物。

              He wants to be an Einstein in the future. 他想将来成为爱因斯坦式的人物。

              c.加在作家、画家等姓名前表示“一件...的作品;一幅...的画像(或雕塑等)”。如:

              There's a Rembrandt in her collection. 他收藏品中有一幅伦勃朗的画。

              I have read a new Wells recently. 最近我读了威尔斯的一部新作。

              Have you got a complete Shakespeare(=a set of Shakespeare's complete works)?你手头有莎士比亚全集吗?

              Experts think the painting may be a Picasso. 专家们认为这幅画可能出自毕加索的手笔。

              d.加在姓氏前,表示“某家族(或家庭)”中的一个成员。如:

              Is that a Wilson over there?那边那个人是威尔逊家的人码?

              His wife is a Stuart(=a member of Stuart family).他的妻子是斯图亚特家的人。

              e.加在姓氏前表示“某人的发明或设计”。如:

              He bought a Underwood last year. 去年他买了一台安伍德牌打印机。

              f.人名前还可以加“a(n)+adj.”表示特别的意思。如:

              We were met at the door by a smiling Mary,not by an angry Mary.在门口迎接我们的是微笑的玛丽,而不是生气的玛丽。

              A sad-faced Charles came in the meeting room. 满脸愁容的查尔斯走进会议室。

              3、定冠词the+人名的用法

              a、通常情况下,已经转化为类名词的人名大都能与the连用。如:

              Lu Xun was the Gorky of China. 鲁迅是中国的高尔基。

              Guan Hanqing is considered to be the Shakespeare of China.关汉卿被认为是中国的莎士比亚。

              b、“the+adj.+人名”可以强调某人暂时的特征或状态。人名前面或后面加定语把某人与其它同名的人区别开来时也要用the.如:

              The frightened Jack returned home for two guns.惊恐万分的杰克回家取了两支。

              The William I know was a hunter. 我认识的威廉是个猎人。

              c、“the+复数姓氏”可以表示某姓的一家人或夫妻俩、兄弟俩、姐妹俩等。如:

              The Bakers will leave for New York tomrrow. 贝克一家人明天要去纽约。

              It took the Loisels ten years to pay off their debts. 卢瓦泽尔夫妇用了十年才还清了债务。

              d.表示所指之人是听、说双方都作同一理解的那个知名人士时该人名前要用the.如:

              --She is a distant relative of Henry Ford.她是亨利.福特的一个远房亲戚。

              --Is she,indeed?The Henry Ford?真的吗?你是指那个有名的亨利.福特?

              --Yes,the Henry Ford.是的,就是那个众所周知的亨利.福特。

              英语语法二

              population 英 [ˌpɒpjuˈleɪʃn] 美 [ˌpɑ:pjuˈleɪʃn]

              population的基本意思是“人口”,是个集合名词。(集合名词有些只表示复数意义,<如people,例句:People are not interested in such things.人们对那样的事不感兴趣。这里People是复数,所以用谓语用are>;有些只表示单数意义,<如furniture(家具),例句:Some furniture is made of bamboo. 有些家具是竹制的。这里furniture是单数,所以谓语用is>;有些集合名词根据情况来确是是单数意义还是复数意义,<如family,例句:His family isn’t very large. 他家成员不多。His family are music lovers. 他家个个都是音乐爱好者。>)。population在不同用法中可以是单数意义也可能是复数意义。

              下面详细谈一下population的用法

              1、population常与定冠词the连用,作主语用时,谓语动词常用第三人称单数形式。例如:

              The world's population is increasing faster and faster.

              全世界的人口增长得越来越快。

              At the beginning of the twentieth century, the world's population was about 1,700 million.

              在二十世纪初,全世界的人口大约是十七亿。

              2、当主语是表示"人口的百分之几、几分之几"时,谓语动词用复数形式。例如:

              About seventy percent of the population in China are farmers.

              中国大约有百分之七十的人口是农民。

              3、有时population可用作可数名词,其前可用不定冠词。例如:

              China has a population of about 1.3 billion. (=There is a population of about 1.3 billion in China.)

              中国大约有十三亿人口。

              New York is a big city with a population of over 10 million.

              纽约是一个有一千多万人口的大城市。

              在表示多个地区的人口时,population要用复数形式populations。例如:

              Many parts of the world, which once had large populations and produced plenty of crops, have become deserts.

              世界上很多地区一度人口众多,种植大量的农作物;现在,这些地区已经变成了沙漠。

              4、表示人口的"多"或"少",不用"much"或"little",而要用"large"或"small"。例如:

              India has a large population. 印度人口众多。

              Singapore has a small population. 新加坡人口少。

              5、询问某国、某地有多少人口时,不用"How much...?",而用"How large...?";在问具体人口时用"What...?"。例如:

              How large is the population of your hometown? 你们家乡有多少人口?

              The population of our hometown is nearly twice as large as that of yours.

              我们家乡的人口是你们家乡人口的将近两倍。

              What is the population of Canada? 加拿大的人口有多少?

              The population of Canada is about 29 million. 加拿大的人口大约有二千九百万。

              6、population还表示"某地、某类的动、植物或物品的总数"。例如:

              In India, however, the population of tigers has increased, from 2,000 in 1972 to about 5,000 in .

              然而在印度,老虎的总数已从1972年的2,000只增长到了年的大约5,000只。

              英语语法三

              一、如果主语是不可数名词,动名词,不定式或从句的时候,谓语动词用单数.

              Smoking is not a good habit.

              To live happily needs a lot of things.

              What I said is true.

              二、如果由and连接的两个做主语的单数名词指的是同一个人或物的时候,用单数动词.

              The singer and songwriter is dead.

              The science and technology plays an important part in China.

              Bread and butter(=buttered bread) is a good food for patients.

              “War and Peace” is the best book I have ever read.

              如果由and连接的两个或更多的主语之前有each, every, many a/an, no的时候用单数名词.

              Every boy and girl in the class works very hard.

              Each minute and second is valuable to us.

              三、主语是单数, 后面跟有with, along with, together with,besides, as well as, but, except, no less than,rather than, more than, like, including, in addition to 的时候, 谓语动词用单数.

              Jack with his family wants to go to China.

              He, as well as you, is very honest.

              No one but I is a student.

              Her brother, together with his wife and children, was killed in the accident.

              The father, rather than the brothers, is responsible.

              四、由some, any, no, every构成的复合代词(sb,sth---)和each, either, neither, one, the other, another, little, a little, much, no one, nothing做主语的时候,谓语动词用单数.

              Each of you is cleverer than me.

              Neither student has passed the exam.

              Is anybody here?

              五、both, few, a few, several, many以及others做主语的时候,

              永远用复数动词.

              Several friends were invited to the party.

              Both books are sold out.

              六、all, none, any, some, more和most要是修饰单数名词,谓语动词用单数; 若是修饰复数名词,就用复数动词.

              Most of the apple is bad.

              Most of the apples are bad.

              None of this money is yours.

              None of the people here are teachers.

              七、 由or连接的两个以上主语时,动词和最接近的主语一致.

              You or he is wrong.

              Are you or he wrong?

              由either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also连接的两个以上主语时,动词和最近的主语一致.

              Either he or you have to tell the truth.

              Neither my brother nor his friends are over 18 years old.

              Not only the basketball players but also the coach was very nervous.

              八、若主语的复数名词表示的是”一段时间”, “一笔钱”, “一段距离”, “一个数量”, “一个面积”的时候用单数谓语动词.

              Two weeks is to enough for me to finish it.

              Five thousand dollars is too much.

              Ten kilometers is too long for me to run.

              九、people(人民), police, cattle(牛群)等常用复数动词. 有一些集体名词,如果表示的是整体就用单数动词, 如果表示的是其中的个体就用复数谓语动词.这样的词常见的有family, class, audience, public, team等等.

              His family are all singers.

              His family is very large.

              十、关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,谓语动词与先行词一致。

              Those who want to go please sign their names here.

              十一、一些名词只有复数形式,如clothes, scissors, trousers, shorts, scales 等, 作主语时谓语用复数形式

              The scales 天平 are mine.

              但是成双的东西前面有a pair of 要用单数。

              This pair of scissors belongs to the tailor.

              十二、如果主语由“a kind of ( a series of ) 构成, 谓语一般用单数形式。

              This kind of men is dangerous.

              如果是多种,谓语动词要用复数。

              There are many kinds of apples.

              十三、算术式通常用单数。

              十四、ics结尾的学科用单数谓语动词。

              十五、书名,剧名,报纸名,国名的复数名词作主语,谓语动词用单数。

              The united states is a capitalist country.

              “ The Arabian Nights” is a very interesting story-book.

              十六、“the+形容词(分词)“ 指人谓语动词用复数形式。指抽象谓语动词

              用单数。

              The English speak English.

              The new always beats the old.

              十七、who, what, which, all,more, most some, any, none,

              half, the rest, the remainder 等作主语要看各自的情况。

              十八、one and a half 加复数名词作主语谓语动词用单数。

              One and a half bananas is left on the table.

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